Even if French medicine is more recent than traditional Asian medicine, it boasts hundreds of years of medical innovations and discoveries which have boosted the efficiency of medical care. Among them:

•    Ambroise Paré (1510-1590), war surgeon, considered as the father of the modern surgery, famous for being the first to have rejected cauterization to seal wounds after amputation : instead, he used ligatures to tie off the blood vessels

•    Dominique-Jean Larrey (1766-1842), chief surgeon of Napoleon,  an important innovator in battlefield medicine and triage. He is often considered to be the first modern military surgeon, inventor of the battlefield ambulance, famous for his technical skills, such as Marshall Lannes’ leg amputation on the battle field in under 2 minutes. In 1811, he performed a pre-anesthetic mastectomy on Mrs. Frances Burney in Paris

•    Louis Pasteur (1822-1895), chemist, considered as the father of asepsis, showing that airborne microbes were the cause of disease. Louis Pasteur also built on the work of Edward Jenner, inventor of the first vaccine (smallpox) to futher develop more vaccines, including the rabies vaccine

•    Marie Curie (1867-1934), physicist and chemistry research, the first woman and first person to win two Nobel Prizes (1903, 1911). Marie Curie produced the first artificial radioactive elements (radium and polonium), using them to create the first radiotherapy treatment against cancer in 1922. In addition, she founded in 1909 the first cancer hospital in the world, the “Institut du Radium” – later on, renamed Institut Curie and still in operation – combining both medical research and care teams on the same site

•   Alexis Carrel (1873-1944), Nobel Prize, visionary vascular surgeon and pioneer in organ transplantation. Nobel Prize winner, he made significant contributions in the fields of vascular surgery, cardiothoracic surgery and organ transplantation. He demonstrated that blood vessels can be united end-to-end and pioneered the triangulation suturing technique in vascular anastomosis. The methods he developed are still in use today

•    Henri Laborit (1914-1995), in 1951, was the first to use neuroleptics which led to revolutionary treatments in psychiatry

•    Jean Hamburger (1909-1992), in 1952 performed the first kidney transplant from a live donor