BRAIN SURGERY AND NEUROLOGY

The modern phase of one the most ancient fields of medical experimentation (3,000+ years trepanned skulls found in Egypt) began in France in the mid-19th century, when Dr. Charcot pioneered, using a humane approach, the first non-brutal psychiatric treatments.

By 1930, Pr. Joseph Babinski, Pr. Thierry de Martel and Pr. Clovis Vincent performed the first neurosurgical operations and by 1950, Pr. Henri Laborit developed the RP 4560 Rhone Poulenc molecule, the first neuroleptics to be introduced in the world, which revolutionized psychiatric treatments.  

Nowadays, this pioneer spirit remains intact.

Thousands of neuro-doctors and neuro-surgeons are daily performing high-end interventions.

They are equipped with the most modern 3D imagery, robotics, neuro-endoscopy equipment and world-class medication developed by the French and international pharmaceutical industry, to efficiently treat :
 
o    Brain tumors (50% of surgical activity)
o    Vascular system
o    Traumatic repairs, physical or mental (ex. PTSD)
o    Migraines and headaches 
o    Complex sclerosis
o    Nerve reconstruction

as well as diseases of the peripheral nervous system (sciatic nerve complaints, polyneuropathy), epilepsy attacks, strokes and TIA (Transient Ischemic Attacks), MS (Multiple Sclerosis) and vasculitis (destruction by inflammation of blood vessels), degeneration of nervous system (Parkinson, Alzheimer).

For example, in France, 797 hospitals are able to treat major, ischemic or hemorrhagic strokes, 54 specialized in operating cerebral aneurysms.  

In these fields, C3Medical is a close partner with Neuro-St Anne Hospital, in Paris.

NERVOUS SYSTEM'S AND SKULL-BASE TUMORS

What are primary tumors of the central nervous system and skull base?

Among tumors that develop in the brain and spinal cord, we must first distinguish between primary tumors that initially develop in the central nervous system, and brain metastasis that occurs secondarily among patients who already have cancer in another organ (breast, lung, kidney, melanoma, etc.).

Institut Curie is leading center for these tumors, and has developed multidisciplinary expertise integrating diagnosis and therapeutic treatment. 

Primary tumors of the central nervous system in children, adolescents and young adults

These are rare tumors whose classification is rapidly evolving based on anatomopathology and molecular biology. The therapeutic strategy for treatment is personalized, and may include surgery, chemotherapy, targeted therapy, and/or high-precision radiotherapy via X-ray or proton beam.

Malignant primary tumors of the central nervous system in adults

  • Malignant primary tumors of the central nervous system are mainly represented among adults by glial tumors, both low-grade and high-grade.
  • Rare tumors such as medulloblastomas, ependymomas, intracranial germ-cell tumors, and pineal region tumors are most commonly observed among young adults, but can appear at any age.
  • Primary cerebral lymphoma is rare. Institut Curie coordinates with AP-HP, the French national expert network for these tumors.
  • Benign primary tumors of the central nervous system in adults

These tumors develop particularly in the pituitary gland region and include:

  • Craniopharyngiomas.
  • Pituitary adenomas.
  • Meningiomas.

These are treated with complementary approaches to neurosurgery using high-precision radiotherapy technologies, via X-ray or proton beam, that optimize protection of the normal tissues surrounding these benign tumors.

Primary tumors of the skull base 

Since they grow in bone, skull base tumors such as chordomas, chondrosarcomas, and osteosarcomas require specific expertise for their local treatment, which is divided between Institut Curie radiotherapists and neurosurgeons. Their removal is difficult and often incomplete, and postoperative radiation therapy is needed. Since they are often resistant, they require a high dose to control the disease, calling for the use of high-precision techniques such as proton therapy, the standard treatment.

What are the warning symptoms?

Symptoms depend on the seat and extent of the lesion:

In the brain, these cancers can lead to headaches, vomiting, neurological problems such as difficulty walking, motor deficits, etc., and epileptic fits.

In rarer cases, the red flag is a visual disturbance or endocrine disruption.
In the spine, the symptoms can be pain, disturbed sensation, and motor disorders.

A physician should be consulted when these symptoms appear, so that a brain scan or brain and/or spinal MRI can be conducted as soon as possible.

In most cases, a biopsy is needed to confirm the diagnosis and clarify the tumor’s histological and molecular parameters. Since the tumors are often operated on immediately, the biopsy can be done at the same time. This analysis helps pinpoint the severity of the tumor. These elements are crucial for providing appropriate care. 

Source: https://institut-curie.org/liste/different-types-cancer

PTSD - POST-TRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER

In recent years, French have experienced asymmetric conflicts for soldiers and terrorist attacks on civilians where the victims suffer severe emotional shock.  As a result, some interesting care techniques have come to the forefront, applied to a larger scope of patients who have been victims of traumas such as – non-exhaustive list - accident, sexual assault, aggression, harassment, fire, violent natural event.

If not treated seriously, it has been understood that the impacts of such events - which were previously considered to be only “emotional” or “mental” (“… it’s in your head!”), and only treated by psychiatry or psychoanalysis – could lead to physical wounds in the brain (amygdala, hippocampus, pre-fontal cortex).

Beyond psychological and medical treatments, some effective leading-edge techniques such as the EMDR (Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing, introduced by Francine Shapiro in 1987) are applied by specialized French doctors.
 

NERVOUS SYSTEM'S AND SKULL-BASE TUMORS

What are primary tumors of the central nervous system and skull base?

Among tumors that develop in the brain and spinal cord, we must first distinguish between primary tumors that initially develop in the central nervous system, and brain metastasis that occurs secondarily among patients who already have cancer in another organ (breast, lung, kidney, melanoma, etc.).

Institut Curie is leading center for these tumors, and has developed multidisciplinary expertise integrating diagnosis and therapeutic treatment. 

Primary tumors of the central nervous system in children, adolescents and young adults

These are rare tumors whose classification is rapidly evolving based on anatomopathology and molecular biology. The therapeutic strategy for treatment is personalized, and may include surgery, chemotherapy, targeted therapy, and/or high-precision radiotherapy via X-ray or proton beam.

Malignant primary tumors of the central nervous system in adults

  • Malignant primary tumors of the central nervous system are mainly represented among adults by glial tumors, both low-grade and high-grade.
  • Rare tumors such as medulloblastomas, ependymomas, intracranial germ-cell tumors, and pineal region tumors are most commonly observed among young adults, but can appear at any age.
  • Primary cerebral lymphoma is rare. Institut Curie coordinates with AP-HP, the French national expert network for these tumors.
  • Benign primary tumors of the central nervous system in adults

These tumors develop particularly in the pituitary gland region and include:

  • Craniopharyngiomas.
  • Pituitary adenomas.
  • Meningiomas.

These are treated with complementary approaches to neurosurgery using high-precision radiotherapy technologies, via X-ray or proton beam, that optimize protection of the normal tissues surrounding these benign tumors.

Primary tumors of the skull base 

Since they grow in bone, skull base tumors such as chordomas, chondrosarcomas, and osteosarcomas require specific expertise for their local treatment, which is divided between Institut Curie radiotherapists and neurosurgeons. Their removal is difficult and often incomplete, and postoperative radiation therapy is needed. Since they are often resistant, they require a high dose to control the disease, calling for the use of high-precision techniques such as proton therapy, the standard treatment.

What are the warning symptoms?

Symptoms depend on the seat and extent of the lesion:

In the brain, these cancers can lead to headaches, vomiting, neurological problems such as difficulty walking, motor deficits, etc., and epileptic fits.

In rarer cases, the red flag is a visual disturbance or endocrine disruption.
In the spine, the symptoms can be pain, disturbed sensation, and motor disorders.

A physician should be consulted when these symptoms appear, so that a brain scan or brain and/or spinal MRI can be conducted as soon as possible.

In most cases, a biopsy is needed to confirm the diagnosis and clarify the tumor’s histological and molecular parameters. Since the tumors are often operated on immediately, the biopsy can be done at the same time. This analysis helps pinpoint the severity of the tumor. These elements are crucial for providing appropriate care. 

Source: https://institut-curie.org/liste/different-types-cancer

PTSD - POST-TRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER

In recent years, French have experienced asymmetric conflicts for soldiers and terrorist attacks on civilians where the victims suffer severe emotional shock.  As a result, some interesting care techniques have come to the forefront, applied to a larger scope of patients who have been victims of traumas such as – non-exhaustive list - accident, sexual assault, aggression, harassment, fire, violent natural event.

If not treated seriously, it has been understood that the impacts of such events - which were previously considered to be only “emotional” or “mental” (“… it’s in your head!”), and only treated by psychiatry or psychoanalysis – could lead to physical wounds in the brain (amygdala, hippocampus, pre-fontal cortex).

Beyond psychological and medical treatments, some effective leading-edge techniques such as the EMDR (Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing, introduced by Francine Shapiro in 1987) are applied by specialized French doctors.